What Are The Common Faults Of A Typical Compressor

September 23 18:32 2020

Insufficient exhaust

Insufficient displacement is one of the most prone to failures of the compressor, and its occurrence is mainly caused by the following reasons:

1. Incoming filter failure: fouling is blocked, the exhaust volume is reduced; the suction pipe is too long, the pipe diameter is too small, so that the suction resistance is increased, which affects the gas volume. The filter should be cleaned regularly.

2. Reduced compressor speed reduces exhaust volume: improper use of air compressor, because the air compressor displacement is designed according to a certain altitude, compressor suction temperature and humidity, when it is used in excess of the above standards When the plateau is on, the suction pressure is lowered, and the displacement is inevitably lowered.

3. The cylinder, piston and piston ring are seriously worn and out of tolerance, which increases the relevant clearance and increases the leakage, which affects the displacement. When it is normal wear, it is necessary to replace consumable parts in time, such as piston rings. If the installation is not correct and the gap is not suitable, it should be corrected according to the drawings. If there is no drawing, the empirical data may be obtained. For the circumferential gap between the piston and the cylinder, such as the cast iron piston, the clearance value is the cylinder diameter. 0.06/100~0.09/100; for aluminum alloy pistons, the clearance is 0.12/100~0.18/100 of the diameter of the gas path; the steel piston can take the smaller value of the piston of the aluminum alloy.

4. The stuffing box is not strict, and air leakage is generated to reduce the gas volume. The reason is firstly that the stuffing box itself is not required to be manufactured; the second reason may be that the piston rod and the stuffing box are not well aligned during installation, causing air leakage due to wear and strain; generally, the filler is filled at the stuffing box. It can function as lubrication, sealing and cooling.

Exhaust temperature is not normal

An abnormal exhaust temperature means that it is higher than the design value. Theoretically, the factors affecting the increase in exhaust gas temperature are: intake air temperature, pressure ratio, and compression index (for air compression index K = 1.4). The actual situation affects the factors of high suction temperature, such as: low intermediate cooling efficiency, or the scale connection in the intercooler affects heat exchange, the inhalation temperature of the latter stage must be high, and the exhaust temperature will be high. In addition, the gas valve leaks and the piston ring leaks, which not only affects the rise of the exhaust gas temperature, but also changes the interstage pressure. As long as the pressure ratio is higher than the normal value, the exhaust gas temperature will rise. In addition, water-cooled machines, lack of water or insufficient water, will increase the temperature of the exhaust.

Pressure is not normal

If the volume of gas discharged from the compressor does not meet the flow requirements of the user at the rated pressure, the exhaust pressure must be reduced. At this point, I had to change another machine with the same exhaust pressure and a large exhaust volume. The main reason for the abnormal pressure between the stages is the leakage of the gas valve or the leakage of the piston ring. Therefore, the reasons and measures should be taken from these aspects.

Abnormal sound

If some parts of the compressor fail, an abnormal sound will be emitted. Generally speaking, the operator can discern the abnormal sound. The gap between the piston and the cylinder head is too small and directly impacts; the piston rod and the piston connecting nut are loose or tripped; the piston end face is blocked, the piston moves up against the cylinder head; the metal fragments in the cylinder and the water accumulated in the cylinder Both can make a knocking sound in the cylinder. Crankshaft bolts, nuts, connecting rod bolts, crosshead bolt loosening, tripping, breaking, etc. in the crankcase, the shaft diameter is seriously worn, the clearance is increased, the clearance between the crosshead pin and the bushing is too large or the wear is serious, etc. A percussion sound is heard in the crankcase. The venting valve piece is broken, the valve spring is soft or damaged, and the load regulator is improperly adjusted, etc., and the knocking sound can be emitted in the valve cavity. This is to find faults and take measures.

Overheat fault

In the friction between the crankshaft and the bearing, the crosshead and the slide, the packing and the piston rod, the temperature exceeds the specified value and is called overheating. The consequences of overheating: one is to speed up the wear of the friction pair, and the other is that the heat of the excessive heat accumulates and burns the friction surface and causes a major accident. The main causes of bearing overheating are: uneven bearing or journal contact or too small contact area; bearing deflection crankshaft bending, lubricating oil viscosity is too small, oil circuit is blocked, oil pump is faulty, resulting in oil cut, etc.; There is no gap, the spindle and motor shaft are not aligned, and the two axes are tilted.

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